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例如:

Have you found the book? You were looking for the book yesterday.

在这两个句子中,the book是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the book。把后面这一句变成定语从句,找个关系词来代替the book;在将要被变成定语从句的名子中,the book是物并作宾语,所以用which或that代替它。

然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"that/which you were looking for yesterday?”,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“have you found the book that/which you were looking for yesterday?”定语从句就完成了,主句是问句,所以句末用问号。that/which代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们仍然作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“have you found the book you were looking for yesterday?”。

关系副词与此同理。只是关系副词代替的是原句中的状语。在被代替之前,这个状语中一定要含有一个与另一句相同的成分。

例如:This is the house where I was born and brought up. = I was born and brought up in the house. 在这两个句子中,in the house是句子里的地点状语,定语从句修饰的就是the house。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,in the house是地点状语,所以用where来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序来代替它。然后再把where放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,就成了"where I was born and brought up"。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了"This is the house where I was barn and brought up.”,定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。Where代替的是原句中的状语,原句变成了从句,它就作从句的状语。

(1) The hotel is an artistic building. We'll stay in it.

……The hotel where we'll stay is an artistic building.

……The hotel (which/that) we'll stay in is an artistic building.

……The hotel in which we'll stay is an artistic building.

(2) Perhaps they' ve heard of the place. We went there for our holidays last time.

……Perhaps they' re heard of the place where we went for our holidays last time.

•定语从句

请大家照上面的例子,把下面变定语从句的步骤说出来(括号里的可以省略):

(3)They’re redecorating the room. A conference will be held in the room.

→They’re redecorating the room where a conference will be held.

→They’re redecorating the room (which /that) a conference will be held in.

→They’re redecorating the room in which a conference will be held.

那么,“介词 关系代词”是怎么回事呢?原来上面这个例句,还有一种做法:This is the house. I was born and brought up in the house.在这两个句子中,the house是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the house 。把后面这一句变成定语从句。在将要被变成定语从句的句子中,the house表示物而且是介词in的宾语,所以用关系代词which或that来代替。然后把which或that放到本句的最前面,其它的词和语序一律不变。这时,后面这一句就成了 “which/that I was born and brought up in”。再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,就成了“This is the house which/that I was born and brought up in”。定语从句就完成了,主句是陈述句,所以句末用句号。

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